total risk administrators (TRA) logo

Breast Cancer Symptoms and Causes

Young woman smiling

One in 31 South African women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in her lifetime, making it the most common type of cancer across the country. However, early detection can stop cancer from spreading which is why it is important to be informed on the symptoms and to have regular screenings.

Types of breast cancer

When tumours form in the breast, they usually start within cells in the milk ducts or in the milk-producing lobule glands.

> Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)
This type of cancer starts within a milk duct and has not started to spread into the breast tissue yet and is usually considered to be non-invasive or pre-invasive breast cancer.

> Invasive breast cancer (ILC or IDC)
This breast cancer has already started to spread to the surrounding breast tissue. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) accounts for about 70-80% of all breast cancers.

Types of breast cancer

Do regular self-checks for any of the following symptoms:

Any new lump or mass in your breast

Breast or nipple pain

Swelling of any part of your breast

Red, thick, dry skin, or sores on your breast

Nipple discharge

Swollen lymph nodes under your arm or around your collarbone area

Sunken nipple

Can breast cancer cause pain?

Not all breast cancers have painful symptoms, which is why regular screenings are vital for early detection.

How is breast cancer diagnosed?

Your doctor can make a diagnosis in various ways, depending on the type of cancer suspected. Imaging tests such as diagnostic mammography, an ultrasound or an MRI could be conducted to get a clearer picture after screening, if a mammography may have shown a suspicious growth. Your doctor could also request that a biopsy be done to remove a small amount of tissue to make a diagnosis. The biopsy sample will provide your doctor with information such as determining the tumour features and the grade of the tumour to establish the best treatment plan to follow.

Is breast cancer hereditary?

You can inherit certain genes that might increase your risk factors. About 5% to 10% of breast cancers are thought to be a result of gene mutations being passed on from a parent.

Can breast cancer be prevented?

There is no way to prevent breast cancer but there are a number of things you can do to decrease your risk, such as being physically active, maintaining a healthy weight, limiting alcohol and quitting smoking.

If you would like to discuss female cancer cover under our Femme Cover policy, contact Total Risk Administrators today-

Gap Cover Questions & Queries

If you have any more queries or questions regarding anything related to Gap Cover, why not reach out to our helpful specialists here. You can also visit our Gap Cover page here.

Note: All material on this website is provided for your information only and may not be construed as medical advice or instruction. No action or inaction should be taken based solely on the contents of this information; instead, readers should consult appropriate health professionals on and matter relating to their health and well-being. The information and opinions expressed here are believed to be accurate, based on the best judgement available to the authors, and readers who fail to consult with appropriate health authorities assume the risk of any injuries. Errors and Omissions Excepted. Terms and Conditions Apply.


27 May 2024News, TRA News

Gap Cover FAQs by Total Risk Administrators

Welcome to TRA's Gap Cover FAQ Article. Here, we have compiled comprehensive answers to some of the most commonly asked

23 May 2024News, TRA News

2024 TRA / BIS Under-13 Soccer Tournament Finals

WOW!! 17th May 2024!! What an awesome finals day at the North End Stadium, East London. The standard of football

Read More
26 April 2024News, TRA News

TRA BIS Soccer Tournament

TRA, in conjunction with Border Icons in Sport (BIS) are sponsoring an Under 13 Primary Schools Soccer Tournament to be

Read More